منتدى يهتم بخفايا وطرائف وأسرار اللغة الإنجليزية


    Preliminary research

    شاطر

    مصطفى منصور
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    عدد المساهمات : 136
    تاريخ التسجيل : 25/12/2009
    الموقع : فارسكور - دمياط - مصر ( مدرسة فارسكور الاعدادية للبنين )

    Preliminary research

    مُساهمة  مصطفى منصور في الأربعاء يناير 06, 2010 7:21 pm

    When you have found the books and articles you are going to reference, you will need to read
    them. Here are the golden rules:
    - Always carry a notebook
    - Always read interactively
    - File and rewrite the notes so you can find them again
    - Make a bibliography
    We will explain. The key is: you are in the business of making a collection of your ideas about
    literary texts. These can come to you at any time. If you don't write them down, you will most
    likely forget them. If you do write them down, you will probably think of some more ideas while
    you are writing. Write down any additional ideas too, because it may help you. It does not
    matter if they do not seem very good: just write them down. Carry one of those spiral-bound
    shorthand notebooks at all times, and if an idea comes to you, however intimate or urgent the
    accompanying moment, write it down. No one but you will ever see this notebook, so there is
    no need to feel self-consciousness about what you write in it.
    This is perhaps the most useful attribute of the shorthand notebook: it beats the censor. The
    censor is the cause of writer's block: the small voice inside your head that tells you that what
    you're writing is rubbish or not usable. In your notebook you can ignore that voice, and as a
    result you will accumulate ideas. Some will be good, some bad; when you re-read the notes you
    can sort out one from the other more rationally than while under the stress of creative writing.
    Thus the censor has been by-passed. Your main objective is to compile as many ideas as you
    can, then sort through the mass to find a coherent thought that will make your assignment
    complete.
    1. Making notes
    The best time to have ideas is when you are reading the sources. This is where note-taking
    comes in. Don't make notes in the form of summaries, unless you need it to help you remember
    a plot (lecture notes are an exception to this): it's normally best to read the thing again (and get
    more ideas the second time round). But always, always, read with a pen and notebook to hand:
    read interactively. Always think about what you're reading and write down your thoughts. When
    a thought occurs under these circumstances it will be in reaction to a piece of the text at hand:
    a quotation. Copy out the quote, and a page reference so you can find it again to check it if necessary,
    and then put your idea underneath it. If you tie the idea in with the quote in this way, then
    your ideas will always be text-based and close to the concrete life of the text, as Leavis might
    possibly have said.
    Always write one idea and one idea only per page of the shorthand notebook. Why should you
    follow this structure you ask? Do this so that you can properly file them with some order. Once
    a week you will want to review all of the notes that you have accumulated during the week. Take
    them out of the shorthand notebook (tear them out, or remove the spiral). You put headings on
    each note, throwing away the what you will not use (the obvious dross, that is: dross can turn
    to gold if left to itself for a bit). Rewrite if necessary; make more notes if more ideas occur. Then
    file them in a way that you can find them again. Make sure you write down where all the quotes
    came from: editions, page numbers, and so on. Referencing where your information came form
    is very important.

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو السبت ديسمبر 10, 2016 9:31 am