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    Active Learning Strategies

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    عدد المساهمات : 136
    تاريخ التسجيل : 25/12/2009
    الموقع : فارسكور - دمياط - مصر ( مدرسة فارسكور الاعدادية للبنين )

    Active Learning Strategies

    مُساهمة  مصطفى منصور في السبت يناير 09, 2010 5:26 pm


    1. At the start of a session
    Ice breakers and starters
    Aim: To stimulate active learning by reflecting on, and linking to, personal learning experiences

    As a starter for a session or sub-section of a class session, try one of the following:

    (a) Worst/Best personal experience of learning/teaching
    1. Participants: in pairs, take 2 minutes each to describe to each other the best learning experience they have had
    2. Change partners, again 2 minutes each, describe to each other their worst learning experience
    3. Feedback to whole group - facilitator (or one of the group) takes notes on whiteboard (or overhead, or PowerPoint, or butchers paper)
    4. Facilitator and participants: discuss implications for utilising good and avoiding poor learning experiences

    (b) Staff and student expectations
    1. Participants: in pairs, take 2 minutes each to describe to each other what you, as lecturer, tutor or demonstrator (as applicable), hope to achieve for your students by the end of the semester
    2. Participants then take 2 minutes each to describe to each other what they think students want from tutors, demonstrators or lecturers
    3. Feedback to whole group - facilitator summarises on whiteboard (or overhead, or PowerPoint, or butchers paper) the similarities and differences in students' and lecturers' (or tutors', or demonstrators') expectations
    4. Whole group discussion: What might this mean for or lecturers' (or tutors', or demonstrators') approaches to teaching?

    (c) Background Knowledge probe
    This is particularly useful when introducing a new topic: The principle is to select a half-dozen or so key concepts from the area you are about to develop ask students to indicate for each item whether they (a) had never heard of it or (b) have some knowledge but hazy, or (c) believe they know it well and (d) can apply/explain it.

    If a 'show of hands' appears too threatening, anonymous responses can be collected by use of a handout. (see page 3)

    By tabulating the results you can get a basic overview of the group's level of knowledge of (or at least familiarity with) the topic.

    For an example see
    http://www.siue.edu/~deder/assess/cats/probe7.html




    BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE PROBE

    In response to each term below, circle the number that best represents your knowledge in the context of University learning and teaching:
    1. Diagnostic assessment
    1. Never heard of this
    2. Have heard of it but don't know what is means
    3. Have some idea of what is means but not too clear
    4. Have a clear idea and can explain what this means to me
    2. Summative and Formative assessment
    1. Never heard of this
    2. Have heard of it but don't know what is means
    3. Have some idea of what is means but not too clear
    4. Have a clear idea and can explain what this means to me
    3. SOLO Taxonomy
    1. Never heard of this
    2. Have heard of it but don't know what is means
    3. Have some idea of what is means but not too clear
    4. Have a clear idea and can explain what this means to me
    4. Assessment rubrics
    1. Never heard of this
    2. Have heard of it but don't know what is means
    3. Have some idea of what is means but not too clear
    4. Have a clear idea and can explain what this means to me
    5. Turnitin.com
    1. Never heard of this
    2. Have heard of it but don't know what is means
    3. Have some idea of what is means but not too clear
    4. Have a clear idea and can explain what this means to me
    6. Alignment (objectives, teaching strategies & assessment)
    1. Never heard of this
    2. Have heard of it but don't know what is means
    3. Have some idea of what is means but not too clear
    4. Have a clear idea and can explain what this means to me

    NB: You can adapt this background knowledge probe for use with your own class by replacing the headings with key words from the course you are teaching.






    UMcG
    April 2006


    BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE PROBE: Summary table of responses

    Diagnostic Assessment Summative and Formative Ass't SOLO Taxonomy Assessment Rubrics Turnitin.com Alignment: obj/tch'g/ass't
    1. Never heard of it 4 1 1 2 4 4
    2. heard but don't know 3 2 2 2 2 2
    3. Some idea...not clear 1 3 3 2 2 1
    4. clear...can explain 1 3 0 3 1 2

    If you had this result for a series of items in your own topic area, what would you do?
    Remember, results such as these give a good indication of the level of confidence of your students on these items, but not necessarily their actual competence!

    Think about:
    1. How could this result be helpful to you?
    2. What can you do to make sure that the 'confident' students don't feel patronised, while those for whom the topic is entirely new, are not left behind?
    3. Could you consider starting with some small group activities, rather than by giving input? If so, how would you group them: mixed - so that the confident ones help the less confident - or streamed, so that you can help the less confident group while the confident students tackle a more advanced issue?


    2. During a session:

    Active participation strategies

    Aim: To maintain student interest and attention to encourage learning.

    During a session, particularly if there is a considerable amount of input, try to interrupt your flow of input to provide variety and encourage participation

    1. Introduce a problem related to the topic
    2. Provide a short reading passage
    3. Provide a diagram, picture or cartoon relevant to the topic
    4. Show an artefact or apparatus relevant to the topic

    Give participants some time to think about how they might solve the problem; or what the next step might be; or how a reading is relevant to the point being made; or how the artefact or apparatus might be applied.

    Participants could be asked to do one of the following:

    1. write down a point or two in response to the task
    2. talk about the problem with the group immediately around them
    3. if the size of the room permits, move around to find someone who has a similar solution to their own
    4. if time permits and class size is large enough, engage in a 'pyramid discussion'.

    Following a short activity of this kind, the lecturer (or tutor, or demonstrator) gathers feedback from two or three individuals or groups, and links their comments back to the topic.




    3. At the conclusion of a session:

    Summary and feedback activities

    Aims:
    (i) to encourage participants to reflect on what they have learnt
    (ii) to provide lecturer/facilitator with feedback on the level of understanding or difficulty experienced by the students.

    At the conclusion of a session you can ask students to write a few lines on one of the following and hand it in as they leave. (Angelo & Cross, 1993)

    • A 'Minute Paper' handed up anonymously:
    'the most important thing you learnt in this class' or 'what important question remains unanswered?' or 'the muddiest point'
    • 'Pro and Con grid'
    • 'Applications Card', applying theory to practice
    (For a brief summary see also Cannon & Newble pp.74-75)

    The results may give the lecturer/facilitator an insight into the level of impact or difficulties experienced by the students and may be used as a starting point or woven into the following session.

    Alternatively you may wish to try an evaluation about half way through a course and use it 'formatively' to modify the learning/teaching approaches in the light of student comments.

    Informal evaluation sheet (ask 3 basic questions)
    Please let me know about the course so far:
    1. Anything that has been particularly useful/interesting/clear
    2. Anything that has not been useful/interesting/clear
    3. Any other comments

    Formal evaluation:
    If you would like to construct a formal SELT to use in a formative way during the course, you can download the information from the CLPD website or contact Evaluation Service lecturer for advice and assistance (URL for SELT: http://www.adelaide.edu.au/clpd/evaluation/selt.html)


    4. More ideas for active learning strategies

    Source: from Cannon & Newble (2000), pp.71-75.
    Variation in your manner and style
    at the most basic level...variety in presentation is essential in maintaining attention and therefore the possibility of students engaging with the material. (p.71)
    Questions
    A powerful way of enhancing learning is to devise situations that require the students to interact with you or each other. Questions are the simplest form of interaction. (p.72)

    Questions directed at students:
    ...unless the teacher is very careful, the dominant emotion is one of fear. It is therefore preferable to create a situation in which all students answer the question and individuals are not placed in the foreground. (p.72)

    Examples might be
    ...a multiple choice or true-false item... show of hands
    ...ask students to write a question on a piece of paper
    ...address some or all of them in a relatively anonymous and non-threatening way
    ...small group activity within a large group
    ...one-to-one discussion...
    ...reading or problem-solving activities...
    ...brainstorming... encourages lateral or divergent thinking. (pp.72-4)

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الأحد ديسمبر 04, 2016 3:23 pm